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Κυριακή, 13 Μαΐου 2018

House of Plantagenet

The House of Plantagenet[nb 1](/plænˈtæənɪt/) was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were also Counts of Anjou; the main body of the Plantagenets following the loss of Anjou; and the Plantagenets' two cadet branches, the Houses of Lancaster and York. The family held the English throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, whenRichard III died.

House of Plantagenet
Royal house
Illustration of the Plantagenet coat of arms, three gold lions on a red background
Parent familyAngevins
Country
Founded1126
FounderGeoffrey V of Anjou
Final rulerRichard III of England
Titles
Dissolution
  • 1499 (male)
  • 1541 (female)
Deposition1485
Cadet branches
Under the Plantagenets, England was transformed – although this was only partly intentional. The Plantagenet kings were often forced to negotiate compromises such asMagna Carta. These constrained royal power in return for financial and military support. The king was no longer just the most powerful man in the nation, holding the prerogative of judgement, feudal tribute and warfare. He now had defined duties to the realm, underpinned by a sophisticated justice system. A distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots, Welsh and Irish, and the establishment of English as the primary language.
In the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in the Hundred Years' War and beset with social, political and economic problems. Popular revolts were commonplace, triggered by the denial of numerous freedoms. English nobles raised private armies, engaged in private feuds and openly defied Henry VI.
The rivalry between the House of Plantagenet's two cadet branches of York and Lancaster brought about the Wars of the Roses, a decades-long fight for the English succession, culminating in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, when the reign of the Plantagenets and the English Middle Agesboth met their end with the death of King Richard III. Henry VII, of Lancastrian descent, became king of England; five months later, he married Elizabeth of York, thus ending the Wars of the Roses, and giving rise to theTudor dynasty. The Tudors worked to centralise English royal power, which allowed them to avoid some of the problems that had plagued the last Plantagenet rulers. The resulting stability allowed for the English Renaissance, and the advent of early modern Britain.

TerminologyEdit

PlantagenetEdit

Ancient depiction of the first Plantagenet King Henry the 2nd of England
Henry II, 1154-1189, is considered by some to be the first Plantagenet king of England.
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, adopted Plantagenet as his family name in the 15th century. "Plantegenest" (or "Plante Genest") had been a 12th-century nickname for his ancestor GeoffreyCount of Anjou and Duke of Normandy. One of many popular theories suggests the common broomplanta genistain medieval Latin, as the source of the nickname.[1] It is uncertain why Richard chose this specific name, although during the Wars of the Roses it emphasised Richard's status as Geoffrey's patrilineal descendant. The retrospective usage of the name for all of Geoffrey's male descendants was popular during the subsequent Tudor dynasty, perhaps encouraged by the further legitimacy it gave to Richard's great-grandson, Henry VIII.[2] It was only in the late 17th century that it passed into common usage among historians.[3]

AngevinsEdit

The three Angevin kings (French for "fromAnjou") were Henry IIRichard I and John; "Angevin" can also refer to the period of history in which they reigned. Many historians identify the Angevins as a distinct English royal house. "Angevin" is also used in reference to any sovereign or government derived from Anjou. As a noun, it refers to any native of Anjou or an Angevin ruler, and specifically to: other counts and dukes of Anjou, including the ancestors of the three kings that formed the English royal house; their cousins, who held the crown ofJerusalem; and to unrelated members of the French royal family who were later granted the titles and formed different dynasties, such as the Capetian House of Anjou and the Valois House of Anjou.[4] Consequently, there is disagreement between those who considerHenry III to be the first Plantagenet monarch and those who do not distinguish between Angevins and Plantagenets and therefore consider the first Plantagenet to be Henry II.[5][6][7][8]
The term "Angevin Empire" was coined byKate Norgate in 1887. There was no known contemporary collective name for all of the territories under the rule of the Angevin Kings of England. This led to circumlocutions such as "our kingdom and everything subject to our rule whatever it may be" or "the whole of the kingdom which had belonged to his father". The "Empire" portion of "Angevin Empire" has been controversial, especially as these territories were not subject to any unified laws or systems of governance, and each retained its own laws, traditions, and feudal relationships. In 1986 a convention of historians concluded that there had not been an Angevin state, and therefore no "Angevin Empire", but that the term espace Plantagenet(French for "Plantagenet space") was acceptable.[9] Nonetheless, historians have continued to use "Angevin Empire".[nb 2]

OriginEdit

An illuminated diagram showing the Angevins; coloured lines connect the two to show the lineal descent
13th-century depiction of Henry II and his legitimate children: WilliamHenryRichardMatildaGeoffrey,EleanorJoan and John
The later counts of Anjou, including the Plantagenets, descended from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais, and his wife Ermengarde of Anjou. In 1060 the couple inherited the title viacognatic kinship from an Angevin family that was descended from a noble named Ingelger, whose recorded history dates from 870.[10]
During the 10th and 11th centuries, power struggles occurred between rulers in northern and western France including those of Anjou,NormandyBrittanyPoitouBloisMaine, and the kings of France. In the early 12th century Geoffrey of Anjou married Empress Matilda,King Henry I's only surviving legitimate child and heir to the English throne. As a result of this marriage, Geoffrey's son Henry II inherited the English throne as well as Norman and Angevin titles, thus marking the beginning of the Angevin and Plantagenet dynasties.[11]
The marriage was the third attempt of Geoffrey's father, Fulk V, Count of Anjou, to build a political alliance with Normandy. He first espoused his daughter, Alice, to William Adelin, Henry I's heir. After William drowned in the wreck of the White Ship Fulk married another of his daughters, Sibylla, to William Clito, son of Henry I's older brother, Robert Curthose. Henry I had the marriage annulled to avoid strengthening William's rival claim to Normandy. Finally Fulk achieved his goal through the marriage of Geoffrey and Matilda. Fulk then passed his titles to Geoffrey and became King of Jerusalem.[12]

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